Refractive errors are common vision problems in which your eyes are not able to focus clearly on an object. It occurs when light rays from an object are not focused on the retina (inner back layer of the eye) of your eyes. Blurred vision is the most common symptom of refractive error. Impairment of vision may occur in severe cases. You may also experience other symptoms such as headache, squinting, double vision, or eye strain.
Refractive errors are classified as follows:
Myopia or near-sightedness: Light rays are focused in front of the retina thereby causing distant objects to appear blurry.
Hyperopia or farsightedness: Light rays are focused behind the retina and causes nearby objects to appear blurry.
Astigmatism: A curved cornea (dome-shaped front part of the eye) causes light rays to get distorted or twisted which affects the distant and near vision.
Presbyopia: It is the result of ageing, leads to reading difficulty and problems in focusing on near objects.
Your doctor will conduct an eye examination to diagnose refractive errors. You may be prescribed corrective glasses or contact lenses for treatment. Certain cases may require surgery to treat refractive errors.